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Gravity
Chapter 1
Terms in this set (32)
Population
The entire test group. This can include all the students in a university or all the community members in an area
Sample
a subset of the population
Variable
A factor that can change in an experiment
Data
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations.
Data Set
all the data collected in a particular study
Scores
A term used to describe an individuals value with a study
Parameter
Describes the average score given to a population
Statistic
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample
descriptive statistics
numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.
inferential statistics
numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population
sampling error
an error that occurs when a sample somehow does not represent the target population
constructs (hypothetical constructs)
internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior
Operational definition
A method used to measure a construct example: an I.Q. test can explain intelligence or the number of hours since you've eaten can explain why you are hungery
Discrete Variable
Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories.
continuous variable
a quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values that are not countable
Real limits
the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line
Nominal Scale
a scale in which objects or individuals are assigned to categories that have no numerical properties
Ordinal Scale
a scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
Interval Scale
a scale that has a zero point but that point does not define the lowest value; example is tempurature, when is is zero that is not the lowest tempurature.
Ratio Scale
A scale where Zero does determine the lowest point on the scale
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
independant variable
the thing that will be changed in each experiment
Dependant variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
experimental condition
the procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's effect by comparison with a control condition
Nonexperiemental research
Studies in which the researcher collects data without introducing an intervention (observational research)
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
quasi-independent variable
in a non-experimental study, the "independent variable" that is used to create the different groups of scores
Representation of X
The variable score
Representation of Y
Used when there is more than 1 score to measure
Represetnation of N and n
N = The scores within the entire population, n = the scores within the sample
Representation of ∑
∑ = The sum of all the scores within a set
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